Adapting Menu for Touch

Before the proliferation of touch devices website menus were controlled with mouse hovers and clicks.

To view the child items associated with a particular menu item, simply hover over the item to pop up the child menu with the list of child items.

If you wanted to view the parent page, a simple click was all that was required.

Adapting menu for touch: child menu

But hovering doesn’t work with touch devices. Touching on the parent page in the menu navigates to the page, not showing the child menu.

To facilitate child menus on touch enabled devices clicking on the parent should not open that page, but rather show the list of child items.

To modify the traditional menu for touch devices the parent menu items are disabled.

If the parent page isn’t accessible how to view it?

Adapting menu for touch: child menu incorporating parent

If you need to implement the parent page move it, possibly with a variation in name into the child list. For example, the Veg page could be moved as a child below with the renamed parent Vegetables.

The parent page in the menu is there solely for structure it’s no longer a physical viewable page.

Creating Content Border with Images

Website content blocks, often called modules, or widgets, can be surrounded by borders to make them stand out. Perhaps notepad paper or an old parchment.

Different surrounds and backgrounds can be used to make the content pleasing to the eye and to add distinction. The styling enables the content to be categorised either by content or importance.

CSS3 allows for the replacement of some of the older work, for example borders with radius corners and drop shadows.

However, to implement graphic design surrounds, an image is still chopped into segments, as previously.

Where possible the segments are created such that either a horizontal or vertical repeat can be implemented.

Care is taken to ensure that frilly or castellated edges are seen to blend smoothly, not with a jagged edge, step, or hard change of colour.

A repeat allows for an efficient use of downloaded images, keeping the weight of the web page downloaded to a minimum and allowing for expansion of the content area according to the content added.

The two methods generally employed to provide this border styling are tables and divs.

In both methods the image design is chopped up into segments which are either corners or repeats for the sides. There may also be background styling for the content within the block.

The smallest table is based upon a 3×3 grid. Whilst the div method uses a number of divs stacked one above the other.

Borders Using Tables

An example of the table layout is given below. It uses a combination of fixed size table cells.

<table>
<tr>
<td width="6" height="6" background="/images/topleft.gif">&nbsp;</td>
<td width="100%" height="6" background="/images/top.gif" height="6">&nbsp;</td>
<td width="6" height="6" background="/images/topright.gif">&nbsp;</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td width="6" height="100%"><img src="/images/left.gif" width="6">&nbsp;</td>
<td width="100%" height="100%" >Content is added here</td>
<td width="6" height="100%"><img src="/images/right.gif" width="6">&nbsp;</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td width="6" height="6" background="/images/bottomleft.gif">&nbsp;</td>
<td width="100%" height="6"><img src="/images/bottom.gif"  height="6">&nbsp;</td>
<td width="6" height="6" background="/images/bottomright.gif">&nbsp;</td>
</tr>
</table>

Here’s an image showing a container with blue and white edges, with a yellow background for the content

Creating ontent border with images: grid of images

Perhaps a little small to view properly, so here it is enlarged:

Creating content border with images: grid of images (enlarged)

As can be seen the corners are of a fixed size. The sides joining them are set to be the full length of that side. As shown the edge middle sections are 6px in length. To minimise the saved image this could be 1px.

The side and top/bottom images are set to to match the width (6px) or height (6px). These images will then be repeated within the table cell.

The table cell in the centre is the content area. Within this area will be added the appropriate code for the CMS to generate the content.

I have found that to ensure the desired results the images added along the top and sides should be specified fully, to avoid the browser making guesses as to your intent.

The table code above can be improved upon by adding CSS class references and moving the image and sizing to CSS.

For example here’s a 3×3 table with the HTML layout and associated CSS.

<table border="0" width="100%" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0">
<tbody>
<tr>
<td class="BlueBorder-tl"></td>
<td class="BlueBorder-tc"></td>
<td class="BlueBorder-tr"></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td class="BlueBorder-cl"></td>
<td class="BlueBorder-cc">
Content goes here
</td>
<td class="BlueBorder-cr"></td>
</tr>
<td class="BlueBorder-bl"></td>
<td class="BlueBorder-bc"></td>
<td class="BlueBorder-br"></td>
</tr>
</tbody>
</table>

In the CSS below, I have merged the corner images together as a single image. This is then positioned to show the desired corner.

/* begin Box, BlueBorder */


.BlueBorder-tl
{
	width: 6px;
	height: 6px;
	background:url(images/BlueBorder-corners.png) no-repeat;
}

.BlueBorder-tr
{
	width: 6px;
	height: 6px;
	background:url(images/BlueBorder-corners.png) no-repeat;
	background-position: -6px 0px;
}

.BlueBorder-bl
{
	width: 6px;
	height: 6px;
	background:url(images/BlueBorder-corners.png) no-repeat;
	background-position: 0px -6px;
}

.BlueBorder-br
{
	width: 6px;
	height: 6px;
	background: url(images/BlueBorder-corners.png) no-repeat;
	background-position: -6px -6px;
}

.BlueBorder-t
{
	height: 6px;
	background: url('images/BlueBorder-t.png') repeat-x;
}

.BlueBorder-l
{
	height: 6px;
	background: url('images/BlueBorder-l.png') repeat-x;
}

.BlueBorder-r
{
	height: 6px;
	background: url('images/BlueBorder-r.png') repeat-x;
}

.BlueBorder-b
{
	height: 6px;
	background: url('images/BlueBorder-b.png') repeat-x;
}

/* end Box, BlueBorder */

 

Borders Using DIVs

The div method uses a number of divs either stacked on top of each other or absolutely positioned to give the same effect.

<div class="topLeft">
 <div class="topRight">
  <div class="top">
   <div class="left">
    <div class="right">
     Content is added here
    </div>
   </div>
  </div>
 </div>
</div>

Like the use of tables the original image is chopped up into segments which are then put back together.

In the div method all the items are of the same size the background images are moved to their appropriate edge and the repeat set for the x or y direction accordingly.

For example the top left corner is set using:

.topLeft{
background:url(/images/topleft.gif) no-repeat
}

I have found using this method that there is a need to stack the DIVs in a correct order to ensure that the edges and overlaps of the backgrounds match up and can be viewed correctly.

I have also used a method whereby each div is referenced sequentially with the use of absolute positioning moving the div to its required location.

Creating content border with images using divsThe image above shows an example of the result. In this case I have used a fixed width for the div sizing. It would be normal to allow 100% sizing, the div taking the full width of its bounding container.

Again the DIVs are stacked, but in many respects the code looks simpler to view and there is less chance of omitting one of the closing tags </div>.

Note how the edges are constructed first, allowing the corners to sit on top hiding the continuous edges.

<div class="border">
 <div class="top">
 <div class="left">
 <div class="right">
 <div class="bottom">
  <div class="topLeft">
  <div class="topRight">
  <div class="bottomLeft">
  <div class="bottomRight"> 
   <div class="content">Content is shown here </div>
  </div>
  </div>
  </div>
 </div>
 </div>
 </div>
 </div>
 </div>
</div>

And the associated CSS to position the above elements:

 .border{ position:relative; }
 .top{
 position:absolute;
 width:100px;
 height:100px;
 top:0px;
 left:0px;
 background:url(images/GreyBorder-t.png) repeat-x;
 background-position:0 0;
 }
 .left{ position:absolute;
 width:100px;
 height:100px;
 top:0px;
 left:0px;
 background:url(images/GreyBorder-l.png) repeat-y;
 background-position:0 0;
 }
 .right{
 position:absolute;
 width:100px;
 height:100px;
 top:0px;
 left:0px;
 background:url(images/GreyBorder-r.png) repeat-y;
 background-position:100% 0;
 }
 .bottom{
 position:absolute;
 width:100px;
 height:100px;
 top:0px;
 left:0px;
 background:url(images/GreyBorder-b.png) repeat-x;
 background-position:0 100%;
 }
 .topLeft{
 position:absolute;
 width:100px;
 height:100px;
 top:0px;
 left:0px;
 background:url(images/GreyBorder-tl.png) no-repeat;
 background-position:0 0;
 }
 .topRight{
 position:absolute;
 width:100px;
 height:100px;
 top:0px;
 left:0px;
 background:url(images/GreyBorder-tr.png) no-repeat;
 background-position:100% 0;
 }
 .bottomLeft{
 position:absolute;
 width:100px;
 height:100px;
 top:0px;
 left:0px;
 background:url(images/GreyBorder-bl.png) no-repeat;
 background-position:0 100%;
 }
 .bottomRight{
 position:absolute;
 width:100px;
 height:100px;
 top:0px;
 left:0px;
 background:url(images/GreyBorder-br.png) no-repeat;
 background-position:100% 100%;
 }
 .content{padding:8px;}

Thoughts

I have found using a 3×3 table with border edges and a central content area was most successful.

The use of stacked DIVs with positioned images and the use of relative and absolute positioning didn’t always work, for example as a DotNetNuke container. The JavaScript associated with the container elements couldn’t derive the position and tended to then misplace the required action menu.

For efficiency there is an advantage to creating a single image comprising the components to be used. Only the single image is then downloaded which saves on the overhead employed in asking for each image download, checking it’s version.

The single image is then positioned as required. This is like taking a larger image and moving it behind a window cutout to show the desired section.

As shown in the examples above the border images are quite simple. The container themes below are more akin to this style of table and div layouts.

creating content border with images examples

Bootstrap3 Removing Parent Menu onClick

Using the Bootstrap menu clicking on a parent menu item reveals the child items. The parent page isn’t opened in the traditional menu way.

This is by design.

In summary, clicking on the parent menu item shows child menu items as drop down
Hovering over the parent page has no effect.

The result which I wanted was:

Hover over parent menu item to show child menu items in a drop down
Click on parent to change page, showing parent page.

The onclick of the parent menu item causes a drop down to appear and not to move forward to view the parent item

Changes to be made

  • onclick to open parent item
  • hover to show dropdown

To implement the changes I removed the data-toggle attribute and added a hover function emulating the click action but adding the open class.

I added the following to the header.php file of the WordPress child theme.

<script type="text/javascript">
var $vntweb =jQuery.noConflict();
$vntweb(document).ready(function ($vntweb) {
	$vntweb('a').removeAttr( 'data-toggle');
	$vntweb('.dropdown').hover(function() {
	     $vntweb(this).toggleClass('open');
	});
});
</script>

A better place to add this would be an included JavaScript file.

I like to add my own variable $vntweb with a noConflict, rather than simply the use of $. Usually this keeps me out of trouble, avoiding conflicts with other uses of $ as a variable

 

Change Colour of Text Underline

Looking to set the underline colour of text to be a different colour to the text.

The default colouring will set the underline colour to be the same as the text, as illustrated below:

Example text with an underlined word.

We can use CSS for setting the colour using the parameter will be

text-decoration-color: #dd0000;

This may be included, targeting underlines in general, or by use of classes/ids.

Here’s the same underline, with the text-decoration-color set. In this example I’ve used the in-line style – its easier to use for ad-hoc styling examples.

Example text with an <u style=”text-decoration-color: #dd0000;”>underlined</u> word

Example text with an underlined word

WordPress

Whilst writing this article I noticed that the ready formatting options offered in the WordPress text editor don’t include an underline. Is this for simplicity, rationalising the options available in a limited space, maybe because the underline can so easily be confused with a link, or perhaps use of the tag is no longer encouraged.

I found that version 4.7 of WordPress, from late 2016, removed both the underline and justify options from the TinyMCE editor.

Which is Correct <b> or <strong> ?

Using the WordPress editor. When I bold a piece of text the HTML added to wrap it is <strong> … </strong>

When I use the WordPress Android app the HTML used is <b> … </b>

Which is correct to use <strong> or <b>? Does it matter which I use? And in this age of HTML correctness for better SEO ranking is there a difference?

The original interview with Matt Cutts is from 2006. Subsequently some changes in SEO may have occurred.

The gist is that using one or the other shouldn’t make any difference.

But SEO is a moving target and things do change.

There was a time when the new line tag <br> and image <img src=”..”> were accepted. Now single tags must be closed, giving:

<br /> and <img src=”..” />

So do keep aware of the situation.

<b>

The w3 Schools HTML <b> Tag reference simply states that the <b> HTML tag specifies bold text.

The page suggests that this is a tag of last resort. Preference should be given to the <em> tag, the <mark> tag or even the <strong> tag.

Browsers will render the tag as font-weight:bold; Which is different to the implied higher priority <em> tag which is rendered as font-style:italic;

<strong>

w3 Schools has a different emphasis for the HTML <strong> tag. It calls it a phrase tag.

Is there a hint that the tag may become deprecated? Its suggested that better effects can be used with CSS.

It is rendered as font-weight:bold; by browsers.

It also details that back in HTML 4 the tag was used for emphasised text. Now it is important text.

Conclusions

Currently there is no advantage given to the use of either tag <b> or <strong> by Google.

Taking the use of HTML tags in the correct order, as taken from the w3 Schools website <strong> has the greater priority over the use of <b>.

Browsers reference the two tags the same.

References

https://www.searchenginejournal.com/matt-cutts-strong-bold-tags-seo/74073/

http://searchengineland.com/googles-matt-cutts-no-reason-to-fret-over-174713

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=awto_wCeOJ4

HTML Phrase Tags

Many of the HTML tags are there to provide structure. The purpose is to create the columns and rows of content.

The HTML phrase tags provide enhancement to the content, affecting the rendering.

For a paragraph of text emphasis can be given to particular words, by the use of phrase tags.

Whilst most of the phrase tags present their wrapped content as bold or italics, as per the tags <b>, <i>, <pre>, and <tt>, their use is more than a duplication of other tags. They provide more detail and indication about their wrapped content. Take for example the address tag. This informs the search engine robot about the type of wrapped content.

In HTML, there are tags which are used to perform specific operation. It is somewhat similar to text formatting tags. There are some situation where you would like to highlight some word, add quotation, display code in different form etc. to highlight the text in web page.

A phrase tag is used to indicate that a block of text has structural meaning. For example, using the <abbr> tag indicates that the word or phrase contained within is an abbreviation or acronym.

Below is a table of the HTML phrase tags:

Tag Name HTML Tag Tag Description
Acronym <abbr>..</abbr> Used to show the acronym within the body of text, without disturbing the flow. A popup showing the full text will appear when hovering over the acronym .

For example:

<abbr title=”Do It Yourself”>DIY</abbr> home projects

DIY home projects

Acronym <acronym>..</acronym> Deprecated, see <abbr>
Address Text <address>..</address> Indicates an address within the page. This is an indication to the search engine indexing robots more than to the website visitor.
Computer Code <code>..</code> The text is shown with an old style computer programming effect. It also adds a reassurance that the code is meant to be shown this way and not just genuine page structural code which has escaped to public view.

It is generally rendered by browsers using the monospace font family.

Emphasis <em>..</em> Indicates emphasis, not simply the highlighting of a word or phrase within a sentence. Words which convey a strength of action such as must and will are candidates for wrapping within this tag.
Keyboard Text <kbd>..</kbd> Another of those tags which reflects computer/keyboard entry.
Mark <mark>..</mark> This is used to highlight sections of text. CSS styling will override the default yellow background.

For example:

Tomorrow’s <mark>finance</mark> meeting is at 3pm.

Tomorrow’s finance meeting is at 3pm.

Programming Variables <var>..</var> This is used to highlight variable text in web page.
Sample <samp>..</samp> Another computer code tag. Used to define a section of sample code.
Quoting <blockquote>..</blockquote> This is used to show that the wrapped text has been derived from another website.
There’s a default associated rendering which is often overridden in the style of the website.
Short Quotations <q>..</q> This is used to add double quotes within a paragraph or sentence.
Strong <strong>..</strong> This is used to give importance to the text in web page.
Text Citations <cite>..</cite> Used to show that the reference is a citation. For example
<p>Examples taken from the VNTweb articles<cite>Which is Correct <strong> or <b>?</cite>
Text Direction <bdo>..</bdo> This is used to override text direction in web page.
For example: <bdo dir=”rtl”>Converting the flow to backwards</bdo>Converting the flow to backwards

Use of the different types of phrase tags allows for their styling to be tailored within the website’s CSS files adding the website’s own presentation for each and able to exploit the different types to best effect. For example some websites will pull the block quote out with either one or two large quotation marks.

Why add ALT Text to an Image?

Adding ALT text to a website image is good for SEO, but is that all?

The image alt text is the short phrase that pops up when you hover over an image.

The alt text can also be shown when the image fails to load or download.

The alt text parameter associated with a website image is best known for its SEO requisite. However, it’s also important for Braille, screen readers and in case the image fails to download.

Oh, and if someone is viewing your website with the Lynx web browser.

Reasons to add Image alt Text

To summarise, adding descriptive text to your images is good for:

  • SEO
  • Search engine indexing
  • Braille readers
  • Screen readers
  • Disabled image download

SEO

SEO ranking is acheived through a number of factors. Amongst these is the quality of the underlying HTML code.

SEO includes adherence to the standards defined for website design and build.

Badly written website HTML code can adversely affect a website’s search engine ranking.

Included within badly written HTML code is the omission of the alt text from an image. So yes, not supplying this text can impact on your website.

Good alt text may also be used in promoting the web page and the image on the search image results. The text may help to have your image shown on the Google search results, image listing.

Search Engine Indexing

The search engine robots, crawling the Internet, are not able to interpret an image, understanding how you perceive it to be used.

For example, you have included a picture of a building on a web page. The alt text may be used to clarify its context. Perhaps you provided the interior design; your company is based here; as an architect it interests you; or maybe it’s simply a lovely building which inspires you.

Adding alt text to the image will clarify, to the search engine robot the context in which you are using the image.

Otherwise the only available reference info is the file name, and dependent upon the context within the surrounding text.

Screen Readers

A screen reader will convert the text on a web page to synthesised speech, or braille, allowing those with limited sight to browse the Internet, hearing the content of web pages.

Screen readers operate by converting the text content of a web page to either speech or braille. The text content for conversion includes not only the visible sentences of text but some of the underlying code to. To best understand a web page’s content a screen reader will handle elements such as tables and images by cleverly giving more information such as highlighting the table headers.

A screen reader will work best where the underlying HTML code is correctly structured. Making use of the less visible parameters such as the image alt text.

Simply having an image with no description, or the original camera file name won’t be of help.

Image Download Disabled

Disabling image download is the correct setting for best security, when configuring an email client.

Although not a page on your website it does illustrate the importance of adding a descriptive text to your images.

Why add alt Tex to an Image: Lynx Browser

A basic editor, such as Lynx doesn’t handle images. A useful tool if your desktop windowing system has crashed, or you are accessing via a terminal session.

Adding the alt Text

It’s really easy to add the alt text associated with an image.

The common CMSs all offer an easy option to add the descriptive text to the images.

For example WordPress, when editing an image in the media pages or on a page or post offers the alt text as a text box to be completed when editing an image. As shown in the image below.

Image alt Text WordPress Attachment Details

The WordPress CMS offers the appropriate text fields, when editing an image. Other CMSs do likewise.

If you are interested in how it’s implemented in HTML. It’s simply the addition of the parameter alt, as shown in the simplified version below, of the phone box image:

<img  src=”https://www.vntweb.co.uk/image-alt-text-wordpress-attachment-details.png” alt=”Image alt Text WordPress Attachment Details” />

Further Reading

For more information about why you should add alt text to your website images there’s a wikipedia screen reader article and RNIB has info about assistive technology, also read about the BBC’s view on accessability of their website with screen readers and WebAIM has details about designing for screen reader compatibility

Change the Horizontal Line Colour in WordPress

On a WordPress website I added a horizontal line to divide two sections of content.

Within the WordPress editor I had added a horizontal line to space some text. Providing a divider between two sections of text on the web page.

To add the line I had used the HTML tag <hr />.

The WordPress editor doesn’t offer a horizontal line option. I added the line by flipping into Text mode and adding the HTML <hr /> code at the requisite point.

To add a further distinction I wanted to select a different colour for the hr tag. The body text was black on a white background. Black looked to be too strong I favoured a red colour, perhaps #dd0000.

I first tried setting the colour of the hr horizontal line using the CSS style color.

<hr style=”color: #dd0000;” />


But I found there was no change, the colour remained a dull grey.

How to change the colour of the hr html tag <hr />?

An alternative styling of the hr tag is border based. Define the border colour for each of the edges. For example:

<hr style=”border:#dd0000 solid 1px;” />


With this option the line was showing red as intended.

The website’s theme was a child theme built upon the popular bootstrap.

With the help of the FireFox FireBug add-on I was able to see that the default CSS for the hr tag was defined using borders.

I found that the hr tag is constructed from a single border line, not the full box.

hr {
    margin-top: 20px;
    margin-bottom: 20px;
    border: 0;
    border-top: 1px solid #eeeeee;
}

Whilst this at first appeared to be counter to expectations it has the advantage that it is ready to change the line style to dots or dashes. The thickness can be easily amended. It can be shown as an open box or a couple of horizontal lines.

<hr style=”border:3px dashed #dd0000;padding:4px;” />


The border property takes precedence over the colour property. Once defined against the tag, either globally or within a section of the page, this method should be followed.

Maybe this is why the popular bootstrap framework uses border in its definitions.

For simplicity I added the CSS styling in-line using the style property.

To develop the presentation further the styling for the <hr> tag can be moved into the CSS supporting files. This maybe a generic rendering for all of the hr tags or more specific according to the page template and area of the page.

Linking to Another Website

Sooner or later you will want to create a link to another website. Perhaps an event, trade association or a customer’s website.

It’s easy to forget that links can also be internal within your own website. Written a blog article a few months ago and now writing an associated article? Why not add a link? After all it’s good for SEO and it may keep visitors on your website longer.

A little background can improve how you create links and correct those that don’t link properly, or perhaps don’t encompass all of the words.

Don’t just say “click here“. The best text links are contextual letting the visitor know why they should follow.

When it comes to adding links to your page or blog post, fortunately most CMSs such WordPress and Joomla hide the complicated bits.

The CMS editors are much alike, particularly for the the generic font styling, colours and actions like linking.

Linking to another website WordPress editor add link

In the example shown above I’ve chosen to use the WordPress editor to edit a blog post, adding a link to the WordPress website.

I began by highlighting the word WordPress. Clicking on the link icon on the top row popped up the link editor dialogue. This is first shown in its simplified form. Allowing the website address to be easily copied or typed in and accepted.

A link need not only point to another HTML web page, some of the possibilities are: an image; a sound file; a text document.

Why should I care about the technical?

Occasionally the editor will get it wrong, or you realise that you have missed a word from your link text.

Do you remove the link and start again, or do you flip the editor into HTML mode and move the closing tag </a> along a word?

HTML – The technicals

A link is made using the a (link) tag and the href attribute. A link tag looks like:

<a href=”https://www.vntweb.co.uk/contact-us/”>VNTweb: Contact us</a>

As can be seen it is a two part tag, wrapping the item which is to be used as the reference. The attribute href is used to define the link, in this case to the website vntweb.co.uk and the page contact us. The text which will be seen on the screen is VNTweb: Contact us. Here’s our constructed link:

VNTweb: Contact us

Here’s our example sentence, where the word us is outside of the link:

For more information about VNTweb<a href=”https://www.vntweb.co.uk/contact-us/”>Contact</a>us  today!

Knowing that the link is a two part tag, its easy to see that the ending </a> is wrongly located. and just needs moving along a little.

For more information about VNTweb<a href=”https://www.vntweb.co.uk/contact-us/”>Contact us</a>  today!

The target attribute may be used to define what happens when the link is clicked.

  • target=_blank will open a new browser window, leaving the original page open.
  • target=_self will open the link in the current browser window.

<a href=”https://www.vntweb.co.uk/contact-us/” target=”_blank”>VNTweb: Contact us</a>

Shown below are the two types of link:

The Contact us page (self)
The Contact us page (blank)

Using the target to open the link in a new window is particularly useful. With a simple link your website visitor will follow the link and is gone!! Possibly never to visit your site again, perhaps they happened upon your site by chance and can’t remember it’s address. With the link opening in a fresh tab, or window, your site is kept open. Once their journey has been completed your website is waiting for their return and to pick up from where they were.

It is also possible to link to an anchor point within a web page.

Rather than send a visitor to a page and leave them to find the content somewhere within the page, be helpful, take them to the section on the page. Nothing worse than following a link to a page and not finding wheat you are looking for.

A page with a multiple sections can have an anchor added at the start of each section.For our example this page, referencing the HTML technicals section.

To do this we need to first create an anchor point <a name=”htmltechnicals”>:

Now amend our website link to incorporate this additional information. The link from our previous example becomes:

<a href=”https://www.vntweb.co.uk/linking-to-another-website#htmltechnicals”>HTML Technicals</a>

This will now link to the HTML technicals title above.

Link to technicals

A common error, and so easy to miss, is the http:// from the front of the link.

Links can also be created to documents and images as well as links to websites and web pages.

To link to a document include the directory path on the website server. For example if the Christmas menu is in the docs directory the link could be:

<a href=”https://www.vntweb.co.uk/docs/menu-christmas-2017.pdf”>Christmas menu</a>

Links are also used to open the email client on the computer, and more recently enable a mobile phone to dial a number shown in a link.

  • Document: <a href=”https://www.vntweb.co.uk/docs/menu-christmas-2017.pdf”>Christmas menu</a>
  • Email mail to <a href=”mailto:sales@example.com”>email us</a>
  • Telephone <a href=”tel:01234-456-789″>01234 456 789</a>

The email mailto option has been used for many years to pop a new email within the client email package. There are options to set the title and content, helping to future the details of the created email.

Mobile phones can make use of the tel: link. If you are adding your business telephone number to the page then if you create it as a link mobile phones can ring the number when clicked.

SEO

For best SEO consideration of your link don’t simply use the old phrase click here. It doesn’t tell the search engines the context of the link. Be more imaginative inform your website visitor why they should click. Include a part the link title within the wording.

If you don’t wish to give the linked website any value consider using the nofollow parameter. Each page has potential energy to be transferred to another website, shows across all of its links. To block the floor to a given linked website add the motor parameter, as in the example below:

<a href=”https://www.vntweb.co.uk/contact-us/” rel=”nofollow”>contact us</a>

There’s a title attribute which you may also wish to use. It will clarify the purpose of the link.

Links made within your website to another internal page add value. After all if the page was that good and you wish to reference it!

Layer Flash Below HTML DIV sub-menu

Historically a flash video on a website, for example a custom website presentation or a YouTube video, would always sit above anything else on the page.

Recently I was investigating the positioning of a menu drop down hiding below a YouTube flash video.

Increasing the CSS z-index value for the sub-menu was making no difference, it was positioning below  the flash video.

In practice the layering of individual web page items the flash object is rendered last, the top most element.

Most annoying to see a drop down menu disappear below the flash video.

Reading on the Internet for a solution to this I saw suggestions regards JavaScript and jQuery.

However, I was looking for a fix for the flash positioning which could be reasonably repeated.

Changes could be made globally, for example via CSS, or with a generic piece of JQuery/JavaScript code.

Thinking of my customers. I wanted the addition of the flash embedding code to the website to be simple and easy. Preferably via the CMS’s editor, with a simple understandable tweak.

Nothing too complicated, the simpler the instructions the better.

I found an article on Stack Overflow which suggested the use of two parameters, one added to the flash file reference and one as a parameter.

This seemed like a good option. It’s clear where the changes are to be made and easy to do.

To correct the way browsers display flash players above all other page content the parameter wmode is added twice.

  • once at the end of the YouTube file reference
  • once as a separate parameter

Here’s my example modified YouTube flash reference, with the extras in bold:

<iframe width=”560″ height=”315″ frameborder=”0″ src=”https://www.youtube.com/embed/4fekwVhg2sw?wmode=transparentwmode=”opaque”></iframe>

The article referenced is

http://stackoverflow.com/questions/9074365/youtube-video-embedded-via-iframe-ignoring-z-index